We locate and contact people and establishments in the real world by using phone books. On the Internet, what works as a phone book is called the Domain Name System. This system helps identify and locate various resources on the World Wide Web, independent of the physical location of the computer or set of computers that actually contain these resources. On the one hand, these resources are assigned domain names that are text identification labels like 'example.org', and on the other is its binary numerical equivalent like '184.108.40.206'. This numerical identification is what is known as the Internet Protocol Address or IP Address.
Another identifying label is the host name. These are labels assigned to specific host computers. Host names are a subset within the larger set of domain names, and both are used to form a part of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). A URL specifies the location of a discrete and identified resource and the means to reach it. It is more commonly known as a web address: 'www.example.org'. Currently there is no method to directly convert IP Addresses to URLs. What can be uncovered is the equivalent host or domain name of an IP Address.
1. Perform a reverse resolve operation.
This procedure is also known as a reverse lookup or a reverse DNS lookup. There are many web based tools that can perform this operation. Basically all you do is type an IP address in the site's search input field, and results of the lookup are reported back to you. To completely confirm that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the IP address and domain name, you should also do the opposite - enter the domain name and check if the same IP address is reported. This secondary procedure is called a 'forward confirmed reverse DNS' and can be viewed as a lesser form of authentication. Most web based tools that do domain name lookups also include 'whois' data, which reveals the individual or corporate identity that owns the domain name.
2. Perform a traceroute.
Traceroute or tracert is a Windows-based tool that can track down, through the network, the particular path a message will take to reach a specified target. The source computer (you) will send out an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) with a Time-To-Live (TTL) value. Every router that the ICMP passes through will subtract 1 from the TTL value. When the TTL value reaches zero or the ICMP sent out reaches its target destination, a message is sent back to the source computer. This tool is executable in the command line mode of a Windows-based system. You basically type in the complete IP address with a colon at the end and specify the port number after the colon. 80 is the port used to access the web. For example: xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:80. Then type in 'tracert ip address'. The feedback report should reveal to you the domain or host name corresponding to the IP Address.
As mentioned earlier, domain names are only part of an entire URL, which can run long if it includes search string queries or if it refers to specific subpages. But a domain name or host name can already tell you a lot, and you can look further by using common search engines to seek other information related to what you find in the 'whois' part of the DNS lookup.