If you're interested in making long-term investments, you may want to consider investing in equity. Equity investments are when you buy shares of stock, and then hold them in anticipation of income from either dividends or capital gain as the value of the stock rises.
The cost approach is applicable to passive investments in equity securities which are not achievable as the shares of a company are constrained; this will not have a market value and is not considered to be circulating when the sale is eminent.
Initially, the investment is recorded at the cost of shares acquired, but then it adjusts each period in accordance with changes in net assets of the company where investment is being made. The carrying value of investment increases or decreases periodically in accordance with the share that the investor has in earnings or losses, and also decreases in amounts then is equal to all the dividends that the investor receives from the company.
This participatory approach allows for the fact that the company earnings do increase the net assets of the company, which becomes the basis of investment, and that the losses decrease such dividends and net asset value.
The use of dividends as a basis for calculating a stock's overall value poses an additional problem. For example, suppose the company declared a net loss but the investor uses his influence to demand payment of a dividend. Here the investor declares these profits even though the company is suffering a loss.
In other words, if dividends are used as a basis for recognizing income that is not expressed, then with the equity method an investor's regular inflow will become the portion of the profits of the company which the investors have put into the company (which is adjusted to eliminate gains and losses in the companies) and the amortization of the difference among the initial costs of the investor and its share of book value which the company invested will be done on the date of acquisition.
In this scenario, if the net income from the company that made the investment includes extraordinary items, the investor will get the proportional share as extraordinary items also and these will not be considered as investment revenue. Sometimes an investor has also the option to purchase an investment at lower cost than the basic book value. If the investor's share of the company's losses exceeds the carrying value of investment, then the question arises of whether the investor should recognize other additional losses or not. Usually, the investor will end the application of the equity method at that point to prevent additional losses.
If the potential loss is not limited to the amount of your original investment - by guarantee of the obligations of the company which invests or other commitment to provide additional financial support - or if it appears imminent that the company will be dissolved or will otherwise suffer major losses, then it's a good idea to get out of the investment before suffering additional losses.