In the field of cell engineering, genetic scientists have discovered revolutionary breakthroughs in the development of artificial protein synthesis. This process is immensely valuable. If properly utilized, it will help in the mass production of body tissues for transplanting organs and important cavity membranes. The feat has given the scientific, biochemical and medical community the reliable data to explore vital theories in the formation of proteins and the basis of certain folds. Researchers have developed and advanced an efficient protein structure that is uncommon in the natural state. The synthesis consists of a multi-step process:
- Amino acid synthesis. In this stage, amino acids are prepared as specimens for the biochemical processes. These processes, otherwise known as metabolic pathways, are the sources of amino acids that are formed from inorganic compounds. The synthesis includes the substrates that are essential for the organism’s metabolism for continued existence. The amino acid production basically encounters the stereochemical control, wherein the integral components of nucleotide formation are decoded and fused in other folds for further synthesis.
- Transcription of nuclear DNA into messenger RNA. This second process deals with the creation of exact RNA replicas of the series of DNA. As nucleic acids, the DNA and RNA rely on base pairs of nucleotides. These nucleotides serve as the building format of the synthesis. They are essential for the conversion from DNA to RNA with the right enzymes. Antiparallel RNA strands are produced from this process that also become the basis of RNA polymerase to read the DNA sequence during the transcription. Compared to DNA replication, the process produces the RNA complement uracil and thymine.
- Translation. The final process before the DNA becomes a usable protein. It is the synthesis of proteins based on the mRNA template. The protein synthesis happens mainly in the cytoplasm, the core of the cell. The codes stored in the nucleotide series of the mRNA are read as three letter abbreviations, called codons. Each word stands for one amino acid. The translation depends on several components. The foremost of these is the ribosome. It is the ribosome that is in charge of the protein synthesis. The ribosomes within are affected which gradually enclose the mRNA. During this process, the messenger RNA is released and read to form the polypeptide as laid down by the rules in the trinucleotide genetic code. Under this code, the mRNA series acts as a pattern to direct the formation of amino acids known as polypeptides. Inside the ribosome, the amino acids are brought together to form a chain in a series of biochemical processes.
In a nutshell, artificial proteins are formed as elongated series of amino acids. These amino acids cannot function efficiently. Once they have grown or folded into intricate globular structures, they are capable of performing intricate production processes as commonly found in nature. It has become a scientific dilemma in comprehending and predicting the natural laws that dominate this complex folding process. The mere folding of the main nucleic structure and the bundling of the molecular nucleotide chains of the amino acids is basically the central problem of molecular biology to the present.