DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) testing is used in identifying individuals on the basis of their DNA profiles. The cells of our body contain a complete sample of our DNA. In principle, every part of our body is made up of tiny cells containing a sample of our DNA. Even though 99.9% of human DNA sequences are similar in every human being, there are enough DNA sequences that can differentiate each individual from one another.
As part of the advancement in science, DNA testing has a lot of varied uses. One of the first known uses is the paternity test. It allows the verification of a child's biological father. This is very essential in cases of legal and financial battles among parents as well as in determining the financial and legal responsibilities of both parents. It's quite easy and painless to get a DNA sample.
It involves using a swab then swabbing the inside of the cheek to get cell samples from the parent and the child. The cell or DNA samples will now be sent to a DNA laboratory then the cells are compared at various points. Nowadays, you can purchase DNA test kits on a drugstore shelf, making it easier for people to do their tests at home and simply send it to a DNA diagnostic lab for processing.
Just like a fingerprint, DNA gives valuable detailed results enabling law enforcers and investigators to solve crimes. Forensic DNA is now used by most crime laboratories to help them identify potential suspects and exonerate persons who are wrongly accused of any crime. As with any other crime scene, the perpetrator usually leaves behind evidence, which can be used for DNA profiling such as a single hair root. This single hair root can now be used for DNA analysis. From the database, they will now compare it and voila, they can invite this person in for questioning. Since the late 1980s, DNA has been used as evidence in the courtroom.
Another very important use of DNA testing is the genetic testing of a fetus. This genetic test also called a prenatal diagnosis is done when there is a suspected risk for mental retardation and physical disabilities. One of the most common genetic disorders screened by this method is Down Syndrome. As a preventive health measure, newborn screening is also done to test for medical conditions existing in the child. When a child has medical problems that are identified to be genetic, it is very important to diagnose it as early as possible in order to recognize the severity of the problem and recommend the most suitable treatment for him.
Genetic or DNA testing can also help you create your genealogical chart or family tree. Imagine finding your ancestors. Some laboratories offer these services to test your ancestry and establish your history as a race.
There are a lot of advancements in DNA research and unlike before it has now become more and more affordable for the common person, making it easy and convenient to utilize.