There are different kinds of conveyor rollers, depending on the load or weight that the conveyor roller should be able to carry and withstand, and the manufacturer of the conveyor equipment. Different manufacturers, of course, try to come up with different innovations leading to new build conveyor systems and supposedly better conveyor design and better performance.
There are screw conveyors; industrial conveyor rollers for heavy-duty work with a very strong motor; gravity and driven rollers, components and sleeves made of PVC, plain, stainless, galvanized steel, etc. And even plastic. A core conveyor, for example, is involved in the design and manufacture of conveyor rollers and components for light and heavy duty rollers that are made of composite plastic and sometimes reinforced with glass. The components, aside from bearings and shafts, are injection-molded, and the rollers can handle most of the conveyor belting widths that are commercially available, and are also reported to be able to handle heavy loads even at high belt speeds, or after seeing use in a wet or corrosive environment.
The components required to build a conveyor roller generally include the roller, a plastic or rubber belt, a wire mesh, chain, screws, sprockets, shaft and bearings. Since conveyor rollers are specialized equipment, building or repairing one yourself is impossible without the proper equipment. Components might also change depending on the system that the conveyor roller makes use of. These are the main conveyor types and how they differ:
- Light conveyor rollers. These conveyor rollers are designed only for light use. The materials remain the same, either steel, aluminum or plastic for the body and its components, but they usually make use of non precision bearings, and the roller diameter typically ranges from 1 3/8” to 2.5.”
- Medium conveyor rollers. These usually have compliment bearings and a roller diameter greater than that of a light conveyor roller: from 2.5” to 5.”
- Heavy duty conveyor rollers. The roller diameter range is from 3.5” to 7.” Heavy duty rollers also have thicker tubes and generally more durable parts and design.
- Chain Driven Live Rollers. These are available in light, medium, or heavy duty rollers. The sprockets might be in single, double or triple row and appear in different diameters and pitches.
- Tapered rollers. These are specially designed for use in angled places, and usually have components that are slightly different from those for normal use, like modified rollers and belts with special drive grooves.
There are other conveyor systems:
- Flexible conveyors make use of a chain, conveyor beam and low friction slide rails which can carry products on the conveyor itself or in pallets or carriers.
- Vibrating conveyors have a through-like surface, and are used for food grade applications in harsh environments or to carry newly cast metal to a new destination. Vibrating conveyors are also designed for use in places with an incline.
- Pneumatic conveyor systems. The pneumatic system, as its name suggests, makes use of air pressure in the form of a stream of high velocity air. Pneumatic conveyors have ducts or pipes to act as transportation lines to carry a stream of air mixed with light materials that are usually dry pulverised powder like fly ash or cement. Items are pushed through an entry point and unloaded in an exit point by the air pressure.