A wood lathe is a machine that holds and rotates wood about a horizontal axis against a tool that forms its shapes. It has been the foundation of wood-working shops around the world throughout history. Modern lathes can produce different cuts by turning an object and cutting it inward from the outside circumference of the stock block. Given this, the alignment of the wood lathe is important in order for it to run properly.
Misalignments in a wood lathe can result in poor workmanship and wasted wood. Here are instructions on how to true up a wood lathe, so you can ensure accurate cutting.
- Measure the wear on the spindle. If you suspect that the spindle is no longer symmetrical, you can take measurements. Use a dial indicator to get the measurement from the nearest to the farthest points of a rough cut of wood stock as it spins on a lathe. After cutting away the extra material, you will notice that the piece of wood will run in a true rotation to the alignment in the chuck. This is connected to the center of the headstock, which should be where the crank is aligned with the connecting rod. This point, the chuck should exert no torque. If the resulting wood cuts go beyond the center, this means that there are several lathes wearing out of alignment.
- Change the spindle position alignment. The spindle position can be realigned in relation to the headstock death center by getting the measurement of the correct angle of the headstock center. This is usually measures 60% of the spindle. Use the headstock as your guide for measuring the spindle. Through this measurement, you can then label the area where the headstock center and the chuck are situated while they sit on the spindle. Remember to take note of these measurements and any other adjustments so that you can incorporate them to other projects that use the wood lathe. This technique is specifically beneficial when the pieces would be taken off and reworked with at some other time.
- Mark a label on the spindle and mark another on the chuck. The two labels must be lined up as the chuck is repositioned on the spindle. This can be easily done with the use of a steel marker or a small rotary tool. Use your tool to mark a line for the exact spot where the chuck sits on the spindle and another mark for the area where the death center on the headstock is located.
Through these measurements that can be easily taken, you will have a way to true up a wood lathe that was initially misaligned. With these adjustments, you will be able to do more cuttings with the use of the same piece of wood. You can then rework a reinserted piece to the corrected machine, to get better results.
Wear protective gear when working on your wood lathe. Removing a chuck from the lathe spindle can often result in injuries when the chuck is suddenly released.