Speedy Access to FoxPro Data from Delphi

Access FoxPro data using the speed of Rushmore in Delphi.

Delphi Developer January 1999
Copyright Pinnacle Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved.Speedy Access to FoxPro Data from Delphi

Steve Zimmelman

When Borland announced that Delphi 3 was going to have FoxPro DBF/CDX drivers, there was some excitement from FoxPro developers who were attempting to migrate their applications to Delphi. The excitement was short-lived, however, when they realized that the drivers didn't have the same punch as their native cousin. The small OLE DLL presented in this article might be the bridge that finally brings the two together.

I recently developed an application for our company in Delphi 3 that reads the tables in our FoxPro DOS legacy system. Everything went fine in beta, so we started to distribute the application to our clients. There was, however, one oversight. We never tested the system against tables that were highly populated. When we installed the application at one of our largest client sites, the application fell to its knees and died. The problem: The BDE was attempting some complex queries using Local SQL against a table that had approximately 2 million records in it. Our client informed us that queries were taking as much as 72 hours to complete. This of course was not acceptable, so I started to investigate alternate ways of running the queries. The result was a Visual FoxPro (VFP) OLE object in the form of a DLL that runs the queries (or almost any FoxPro command) from within Delphi, transparently, and with the speed of Rushmore. Using this technology, the query time dropped from hours to seconds.

For those who are not familiar with Visual FoxPro, it has a feature called Macro Substitution, which is the basis for the OLE DLL. Macro Substitution treats the contents of a memory variable as a literal character string. When an ampersand (&) precedes a string type memory variable, the contents of the variable is treated just like a hand-typed command, and is executed.

The code for the VFP OLE DLL is actually very simple, and can contain as little as a single procedure or function. I chose to write a few procedures that were specific to the application, but also included some generic ones that might be used by any application. For the sake of simplicity, I've included only the generic procedures and functions in the code below.


* Program: VFP_OLE.PRG

* Visual FoxPro 5 OLE DLL



   Procedure Init

      * The Procedure INIT is automatically

      * executed when the DLL is loaded.

      Set Talk Off

      Set Safe Off

      On Error Do Ole_Err With Error(),Lineno(),Message(),Program()

      Set Exclusive Off

      Set Null On


      *-- If CPDIALOG is ON and a DBF that was

      *-- created without a CodePage is opened,

      *-- the CodePage Dialog Box will confront

      *-- the user.




      Set Reprocess To 1


      * Move Foxpro main screen way off to the bit-bucket

      * so it will not be seen if it is made visible.

      Move Window Screen To -1000,-1000

      Modify Window Screen Title "VFP OLE"

      Hide Window Screen


   Procedure SetDir

   Parameter cDir

      Set Default to (m.cDir)


   Function ExeSql

      Parameter cSql

      Private nRecs,i,cFile,cFileSrc,cFullPath,;



      lIsVFPFile = .F.

      cFullPath = Set('FullPath')


      * Show Main VFP Window so File

      * dialog box will be visible

      * if VFP can't find a file that

      * is needed for the SQL command.


      Show Window Screen


      *-- Execute SQL Statement --*


      cSql = AllTrim(m.cSql)



      Hide Window Screen


      nRecs = _Tally


      Set FullPath On

      cFileSrc = DBF()



      *-- Check TableType.

      *-- If Type Is Visual FoxPro Convert

      *-- to Fox2x.

      *-- The BDE doesn't support VFP tables


      nHandle = FOpen(m.cFileSrc)

      If nHandle <> -1

         lIsVFPFile = (FGets(m.nHandle,1)=Chr(48))



      Use (m.cFileSrc) Exclusive

      cDestPath = left(dbf(),rat('\',dbf()))

      If m.lIsVFPFile

         *-- Convert Result To Fox2x Format --*

         cFile = 'T'+right(sys(3),7)

         Copy To (m.cDestPath+m.cFile) Type Fox2x


         Erase (m.cFileSrc)

         If File(Left(m.cFileSrc,;


            Erase (Left(m.cFileSrc,;



         Rename (m.cDestPath+m.cFile+'.DBF') ;

                TO (m.cFileSrc)

         If File(m.cDestPath+m.cFile+'.FPT')

            Rename (m.cDestPath+m.cFile+'.FPT');

                   TO (Left(m.cFileSrc,;



         Use (m.cFileSrc) Exclusive


      *-- Restore FullPath Setting --*

      Set FullPath &cFullPath

      **-- Return Result Record Count --**

      Return (m.nRecs)


   Procedure SetPath

      Parameter cPath

      Set Path To (m.cPath)


   Procedure FoxCommand

      Parameter cCMD



   Function FoxFunction

      Parameter cFunc

      Private Rtn

      Rtn = &cFunc

      Return (m.Rtn)



Procedure Ole_Err

   **-- Handle DLL internal Errors --**

   Parameter nErr,nLine,cMessage,cPRG

   IF (m.nErr=1707)

      *-- CDX not present, OK to Retry --*



      MessageBox( m.cMessage+Chr(13)+Chr(13)+;

                 'Error# '+str(m.nErr,5)+Chr(13)+;

                 'At Line#'+Str(m.nLine,5)+Chr(13)+;

                 'In '+m.cPrg+chr(13)+Chr(13)+;

                 'See File:OLE_ERR.TXT for details.';

                 ,16,'ERROR in VFP_OLE.DLL Module')


      *-- Dump Memory and File Status To Text File.


      Create Cursor OleError (ErrText M(10))

      List Status NoConsole To File OLE_STAT.TMP

      List Memory Like * NoConsole To File OLE_MEM.TMP

      Append Blank

      Replace ErrText With ;


              DTOC(Date())+' '+Time()+;


              PadC(' STATUS ',80,'*')+;


      Append Memo ErrText From OLE_STAT.TMP

      Replace ErrText With Chr(13)+Chr(10)+;

              PadC(' MEMORY ',80,'*')+;

              Chr(13)+Chr(10) Addi

      Append Memo ErrText From OLE_MEM.TMP

      Replace ErrText With Chr(13)+Chr(10)+;

              PadC('-- End Error --',80,'*')+;

              Chr(13)+Chr(10) Addi

      If File('OLE_ERR.TXT')

         Copy Memo ErrText To OLE_ERR.TXT Addi


         Copy Memo ErrText To OLE_ERR.TXT


      Erase OLE_STAT.TMP

      Erase OLE_MEM.TMP


      Close Data

      Hide Window Screen

      *-- The CANCEL command causes Delphi

      *-- to be able to trap the error.






After the DLL is compiled, it must be registered with REGSVR32.EXE, which is distributed with Windows95 and NT and should be in the \Windows\System directory for Windows95 and \Windows\System32 for NT. However, this process can be automated by the Delphi application at runtime. (see function RegisterDLL)

In the Delphi application I created a method that attempts to instantiate the DLL at runtime, and another to register the DLL if the instantiation method fails. In addition, I have 2 global variables: vFoxOle and bIsFoxOle. vFoxOle is a Variant that points to the OLE object and bIsFoxOle is a Boolean that tells the application if the OLE object was successfully instantiated. This way I can write the application to handle FoxPro Data with the VFP OLE or the BDE. You must also have a reference to ComObj in the "Uses" clause of the form that instantiates the DLL.

In the Form's create method, I call the Function IsFoxOle to instantiate the OLE DLL. The Delphi function CreateOleObject() is used to create a connection to the OLE object and returns a pointer to the object which is stored in the variable vFoxOle. CreateOleObject() is used with a string parameter that points to the ClassName that is being instantiated. In this case, the name of the DLL is VFP_OLE and the Class is VFP_OLE_Server. So to make a connection I used CreateOleObject('VFP_OLE.VFP_OLE_Server').

procedure TfrmFox.FormCreate(Sender: TObject);


   If Not IsFoxOle Then Begin

      RegisterDLL ;

      // Initialize bIsFoxOle with the result

      // of the instantiation attempt. If the OLE

      // object was registered, then the result will

      // will be true.

      bIsFoxOle := IsFoxOle;

   End Else

      bIsFoxOle := True ;


Function TFrmFox.IsFoxOle : Boolean ;



      // Instantiate the OLE object

      vFoxOle :=


      Result := True ;


      Result := False ;



Procedure TFrmFox.RegisterDLL ;

// If REGSVR32.EXE exists RegisterDLL()

// will look for VFP_OLE.DLL

// in 2 places:

// 1) the \Windows\System

// 2) the current directory

var A : Array[0..100] of Char;

    sSysDir : String;

    sCurDir : String ;


   GetSystemDirectory(@A, 100);

   sSysDir := A;

   sSysDir := AddBS(sSysDir);

   sCurDir := AddBS(GetCurrentDir);

   If FileExists(sSysDir+'REGSVR32.EXE') Then Begin

      If FileExists(sSysDir+'VFP_OLE.DLL') Then Begin

         WinExec(pChar('"'+sSysDir+'REGSVR32.EXE" '+

            '"'+sSysDir+'VFP_OLE.DLL" /s'),SW_SHOWNORMAL);

      End Else If FileExists(sCurDir+'VFP_OLE.DLL') Then Begin

         WinExec(pChar('"'+sSysDir+'REGSVR32.EXE" '+

            '"'+sCurDir+'VFP_OLE.DLL" /s'),SW_SHOWNORMAL);


   End Else Begin

      Raise Exception.Create('Cannot Register VFP_OLE.DLL !');



Practical Use

Suppose you have an Invoice application and you need to know how much money is owed, the age, and who owes it. Your query form might look like this:

(Insert File: QForm1.BMP here)

When the user clicks the OK button, the SQL statement is dynamically created and sent to the DLL as a parameter for processing. It is important to note that the SQL string has an "Into Table" as part of the statement. Without this, the Delphi application has no way of picking up the result data. There are 3 ways you can handle the creation of the Table: 1) Create the table on the users local Temp directory with a static filename. 2) Write a function that creates a unique filename or use the Windows API function GetTempFileName(). 3) Combine both 1 & 2 and create a unique filename in the Windows Temp directory. For network environments, I find that option 3 is the safest. It's equally important to use the method SetDir() before and after the Query execution. This is so FoxPro knows where find the tables it's being queried against, and so the Delphi application can find it's way back home. If you don't SetDir() after the query, then there is a fairly good chance that the Delphi application won't be able to find external components like; AVI, BMP, or WAV files it needs. This is because FoxPro physically changes the directory pointer.

This example assumes the DBF tables are in the same directory as the Delphi executable. The function GetTempDir() is a simple wrapper function that uses the Windows API to get the windows temp directory. The SQL Select statement is dynamically created based on the Days Past Due, and the result table is created in the Windows Temp direcotry in a file called MyQuery.dbf. After MyQuery.dbf is created, the Table1 object is assigned its contents and displayed in the grid.

procedure TfrmFox.btnExeQueryClick(Sender: TObject);


   sSQLText : String ;

   iRecs : Integer ;

   sAppDir : String ;


   If bIsFoxOle Then Begin

      // Get application directory path

      sAppDir :=


      If (e_PastDue.Text = '') Then

         e_PastDue.Text := '0' ;

      sSQLText :=

         'Select Client.Name,'+

         ' Invoice.AcctNo, Invoice.Balance,'+

         ' (Date()-Invoice.Date) As Age'+

         ' From Client,Invoice '+

         ' Where'+

         ' (Client.AcctNo = Invoice.AcctNo) And'+

         ' (Date()-Invoice.Date) >= '+e_PastDue.Text+

         ' Order By Client.Name,Age'+

         ' Into Table '+GetTempDir()+'MyQuery' ;

      // Make sure the table object that reads

      // the result is closed before the query

      // is executed.

      If Table1.Active Then Begin

         Table1.Close ;

         // Make sure table is deleted after close

         Table1.DeleteTable ;


      // assign temporary filename to Table1

      Table1.TableName := 'MyQuery.DBF' ;

      // assign temporary Directory to Table1

      Table1.DatabaseName := GetTempDir() ;

      // Set VFP Default Directory to where the

      // Fox DBFs are stored.


      // Execute the Query

      iRecs := vFoxOle.ExeSql(sSQLText);

      Label7.Caption := IntToStr(iRecs);

      If (iRecs = 0) Then

         MessageDlg('No Records Found In Query!'


      Else Begin

         // ExeSql() leaves the result table open

         // so you can pre-process the table in

         // VFP before Delphi Opens it.

         // These Indexes are used to change

         // the sort order by clicking on the

         // Grid Title.

         vFoxOle.FoxCommand('Index On Name Tag Name');

         vFoxOle.FoxCommand('Index On Age Tag Age');

         vFoxOle.FoxCommand('Index On AcctNo Tag AcctNo');

         vFoxOle.FoxCommand('Index On Balance Tag Balance');

         vFoxOle.FoxCommand('Close Database');

         Table1.Open ;


   End Else Begin

      MessageDlg('VFP_OLE.DLL Not Instantiated!',


   End; // If bIsFoxOle


With this DLL you have the ability to do from within Delphi, almost anything you can do from within FoxPro. It's not just limited to simple Macro Substitution, but can be used to develop Delphi front ends that utilize the entire Visual FoxPro database structure. Now I'm not suggesting that we all start using Visual FoxPro for our back-ends, but it does make a nice bridge for those of us who are migrating our DOS and Windows applications from FoxPro to Delphi and need the speed of Rushmore.

There are a few of caveats to this technology using Visual FoxPro you should be aware of:

  • Error handling is limited. If an SQL statement references a table that FoxPro can't find, it opens a dialog box prompting the user for the path of the mysterious table. Only after the Escape key is pressed will it generate a trappable error. So it might be prudent to check for the existence of the tables with the Delphi function FileExists(), before executing the query.

  • The query results are sometimes returned in Visual FoxPro file format, something Delphi doesn't currently support. The result set needs to be converted by the DLL which can take extra time to process.

  • There are 2 Visual FoxPro runtime DLLs that must be distributed with the Delphi application that add about 3.9 megs to the overall size of the application.

  • In order to legally distribute the Visual FoxPro runtime DLLs or create the OLE DLL, you must own a copy of Visual FoxPro Professional version 5 or greater.

    Changes Since This Article Was WrittenVisual FoxPro version 6 and greater do not work with the DLL. You must compile the COM object into an EXE. The EXE can be registered by executing it once on the computer that will be accessing it. RegSvr32.exe is no long neccessary.


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